Books, Papers and Contributions to Conference Proceedings on Physics by C.W. Rietdijk, D.Sci.

With an outline of Rietdijk's realistically four-dimensional theory on physics


On Waves, Particles and Hidden Variables - A new approach, Assen (Van Gorcum & Comp.) 1971.
ISBN 90 232 0562 6

On the Explanation of Matter Wave Interference - Towards the end of indeterministic physics
, Assen (Van Gorcum & Comp.) 1973.
ISBN 90 232 1056 5

Papers and Contributions to Conference Proceedings

On Determinism:

'A rigorous proof of determinism derived from the special theory of relativity', Philosophy of Science, Vol. 33, No. 4, Dec. 1966, pp. 341-344.

'Special relativity and determinism', Philosophy of Science, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec. 1976, pp. 598-609.

'On the reality of "now" at a distance; answer to abbé Lucien', Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1990, pp. 233-236.

for proofs of determinism other than the one discussed in 1. and 2., see 14., section 2, 16., section 2, 20., section 1, and 25. Also see the second book mentioned above (On the Explanation...), Chapter 1.

On Retroactivity
- influences acting backwards in time:

'Proof of a retroactive influence', Foundations of Physics, Vol. 8, Nos. 7/8, Aug. 1978, pp. 615-628.

'Another proof that the future can influence the present', Foundations of Physics, Vol. 11, Nos. 9/10, Oct. 1981, pp. 783-790.

'Bell's Theorem and retroactivity; on an objection by Sutherland', Il Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 97 B, No. 1, 1987, pp. 111-117.

'Retroactive effects from measurements', Foundations of Physics, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1987, pp. 297-311.

'A possible experimental verification of retroactivity', Physica, B 151, 1988, pp. 358-361.

'A largely classical experiment demonstrating retroaction', Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1991, pp. 91-96.

On Action at a distance
- Coulomb interaction etc.:

'How do "virtual" photons and mesons transmit forces between charged particles and nucleons?', Foundations of Physics, Vol. 7, Nos. 5/6, June 1977, pp. 351-374.

On Nonlocal influences
- The paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen and Bell's Theorem:

'Proof of a quantum-mechanical nonlocal influence' [co-author: F. Selleri], Foundations of Physics, Vol. 15, No. 3, March 1985, pp. 303-317.

'On nonlocal influences', in: G. Tarozzi and A. van der Merwe [eds.], Open Questions in Quantum Physics, Dordrecht-Boston-Lancaster (D. Reidel Publishing Company) 1985, pp. 129-151.

On a Four-Dimensional Theory of Microphysics
- coherent laws defining the world as a definite four-dimensional whole:

'A microrealistic explanation of fundamental quantum phenomena', Foundations of Physics, Vol. 10, Nos. 5/6, June 1980, pp. 403-457.

'On the four-dimensional character of micro-physical phenomena', in: S. Diner et al. [eds.], The Wave-Particle Dualism - A tribute to Louis de Broglie on his 90th birthday, Dordrecht-Boston-Lancaster (D. Reidel Publishing Company) 1984, pp. 433-456.

'Four-dimensional realism and waves carrying physical data codedly as keys to understandable models', in: A. van der Merwe et al. [eds.], Microphysical Reality and Quantum Formalism, Dordrecht-Boston-London (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 1988, pp. 245-266.

'The world is realistically four-dimensional, waves contain information embodied by particles codedly, and microphysics allows understandable models, Part I', Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1988, pp.141-182.

Ibid., Part II, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1988, pp. 299-336.

'Realistic models of action quanta, the four-dimensional building blocks of the universe, and of compound particles such as atoms as lattices thereof, Part I', Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1991, pp. 177-203.

Ibid., Part II, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1991, pp. 287-319.

'Towards a consistent four-dimensional action physics', in: C. Cormier-Delanoue et al. [eds.], Courants, Amers, Écueils en Microphysique - Directions in microphysics, Paris (Fondation Louis de Broglie) 1993, pp. 361-378.

'The Zitterbewegung embodies understandable models of the action quantum and retroactive influencing', in: L. Kostro et al. [eds.], Problems in Quantum Physics; Gdansk '87, Singapore (World Scientific) 1988, pp. 713-737.

Miscellaneous subjects, especially as regards Understandable Models in Microphysics

'Suggestions for experiments on action quanta', Il Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 63 B, No. 2, 1981, pp. 541-564.

'A micro-realistic explanation of the [psi]² probability rule', Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995, pp. 187-205.

'Thought experiments relevant to special and general relativity - and some theses', in: M.C. Duffy et al. [eds.], Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory, London 1990 (sponsored by the British Society for the Philosophy of Science), pp. 246-255 [also on the Mach principle and the Principle of equivalence].

'Addition to "Thought experiments relevant to special and general relativity - and some theses"' [mainly on a new proof of determinism from relativity theory], in: M.C. Duffy et al. [eds.], Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory, London 1990, Supplement, pp. 489-490.

'Feynman's beauty and simplicity: suggesting solutions by abandoning assumptions', in: M.C. Duffy et al. [eds.], Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory, London 1996 (sponsored by the British Society for the Philosophy of Science), pp. 366-380.

'On the velocity of light in opposite directions, and on the structure of spacetime', in: M.C. Duffy et al. [eds.], Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory, London 1996, Supplement, pp. 243-246 [we discuss experimental verification of the thesis that the velocity of light is the same in opposite directions].

'Philosophy of science in general and of quantum mechanics in particular', in: Autour de Frans - Nine papers dedicated to prof. dr. Frans Loonstra on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, Amsterdam (The Mathematical Centre) 1981, pp. 49-68.

'Answer to professor Mückenheim' [on relativistic length contraction], Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1992, pp. 357-359.

'A rough derivation of mp/me by abandoning an assumption about space and time', Physics Essays, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998, pp. 222-234.

31. `Toward Understandable Models in Microphysics`, Physics Essays, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2002, pp. 264-289.

`How do Hidden Variables Fit in Natural Law?’, Physics Essays, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2003, pp. 43- 62.

`Four-Dimensional Physics, Nonlocal Coherence, and Paranormal Phenomena’, to be published in Physics Essays, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2005.

`Four-Dimensional Reality and Determinism; an Answer to Stein’, to be published in the book Relativity and the Dimensionality of the World (Ed. V. Petkov) in the Springer series Fundamental Theories of Physics (Ed. A. v.d. Merwe).

`Consciousness and the Coherence of Natural Law’, to be published by Hadronic Press in a book edited by M.C. Duffy.

`Four-Dimensional Reality and its Coherence’, to be published by Hadronic Press in a book edited by M.C. Duffy; it is an adjusted version of the page on this site with the same title.

Outline of Rietdijk's realistically four-dimensional theory on physics

1. Four proofs of determinism (that have never been refuted) even imply the universe to be four-dimensional in a realistic sense: past and future indeed exist in a definite way. (See above under Determinism).

2. They do not merely "passively" exist, but - within the Heisenberg margins of "uncertainty" - the future can even influence the present. This implies natural law to be realistically four-dimensional too, e.g., Least action not merely being an expedient mathematical device for deriving the equations of motion, but a realistically four-dimensional law of nature.
      Also note that, in turn, our proofs of the existence of retroactivity given in 4., 5., and 9. above imply determinism too
: if the future can influence the present to some degree, it has to exist and be definite.
      By the way, the above implies that the orthodox quantummechanical idea that microphyical phenomena - and, therefore, the world - are ultimately "uncertain", has to be abandoned. That is, Einstein was right in rejecting it intuitively

3. One of the revolutionary conseqences of the above is Planck's quantum of action to be a realistic entity, viz. a four-dimensional "atom", not of three-dimensional objects, but of all (four-dimensional!) processes: it is the indivisible element of "occurring"; that is, the most elementary process. This fits within the general model of a four-dimensional universe in which events, or processes, rather then objects and fields, are the ultimate constituents or elements.
      Action is the entity or stuff processes, or "occurring", consist of, this also precisely explaining now why action and its quanta are primary in physics at all, and especially in the quantizations of all physical observables.
      We even go as far as abandoning as a redundant hypothesis the idea that anything more exists in the four-dimensional physical universe than action quanta and their structures (or "lattices")
, which constitute processes in time, such as the existence in time of a particle or field. It appears to be possible to derive "conventional" metric, energy, matter etcetera from action and the structures ("processes", four-dimensional existence) formed by its quanta (see especially 13.).

4. One more radical consequence is that - as demonstrated in 13. and 14. above - a new metric becomes relevant in microphysics. Such action metric is in a position to explain the nonlocal phenomena - in space and time - appearing in quantum mechanics, such as the Paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen, the "instantaneous" collapse of wave packets, and an electron "passing through two slits at a time" in a Young double-slit interference experiment. More generally, it radically contributes to producing an understandable model of the intriguing "wave-particle duality" appearing in microphysics. Inter alia, it provides an understandable model of retroactivity (see 13.).
      This for the first time explains Bohr's conjecture that "a microprocess constitutes a whole", "explaining" being meant here as really implying our getting an Aha-Erlebnis
      Actually, the concept of action distance (and, hence, action metric) is simple and goes with our four-dimensional model of the world: it is the distance between events
(rather than objects), measured in "an amount of occurring", that is, of action. Generally, we abandon as a superfluous assumption the idea that metric independently exists as a "pre-existing scheme". Quite the contrary, it is derived from four-dimensional processes, that is, action, just as everything else in physics. Within this scope, the vacuum is a mere "derived, theoretical construct", not existing independently of events and action. As independent entities - as "amounts of vacuum" - metrical distances do no more exist than the aether.

5. The action metric, in a way, is in the produced part of Special relativity. Viz. the latter integrated space and time into spacetime in such way that both space and time lost their absolute character on account of their being derived from spacetime. This, inter alia, solved the paradox of the constancy of the velocity of light.
      Now we go a step further by in turn integrating both spacetime and energy-momentum into action. By our doing so, even spacetime and its metric become less absolute
, just as formerly Euclidean metric became less absolute because of its integration into spacetime. For, spacetime and concomitant relativistic metric are now relativized by their integration into more absolute action, the primary "stuff" of four-dimensional processes and the four-dimensional world. Within this scope, action metric as indicated above is also more fundamental than the relativistic one derived from it.
      We can also say: Precisely as Euclidean metric implies a distortion of more fundamental relativistic metric, small distances in the latter sometimes becoming "stretched" in Euclidean space, relativistic distances appear now as sometimes distorted ("stretched") manifestations of action metric, in which difference in action is essential.

6. Our main program is now explaining atoms, protons and other microparticles - or rather: their four-dimensional existence in time -, as well as micro-interactions, via understandable deterministic models, using action metric, realistic action quanta and another new concept: the coded-information theory.
      Such models boil down to the conception that "quantization" (just as everything else in microphysics) is a very realistic four-dimensional phenomenon too
, i.e. the one that all micro-processes - including micro-objects existing in time - are constituted by structures or lattices of action quanta, these structures being just as realistic and unequivocally definite as is always required with understandable models. Still, they fundamentally differ from classical models by (a) realistic four-dimensionality, (b) the (corresponding) action metric and (c) waves carrying physical information in coded ways, which wrongly used to suggest to us that realistic models of the relevant processes are impossible. (Our ignorance of action metric - the latter "distorting" otherwise possible imaginable models of objects and processes - added to such idea.)
      In constructing four-dimensional action-quantal models of compound particles such as atoms and molecules in 19., we discuss how sub-processes such as electronic rotations, and vibrations and rotations in molecules, fit in such models. Nature appears to encode optimally simply ("economically") the physical data at stake. Our models explain why the "quantal clocks", and the de Broglie wave lengths going with complicated compounds such as atoms, correspond to the appearance of "whole-atom quanta".
      In our understandable model of the proton in 20. it is seen how it can zitter
as a point particle in the Dirac way and be an extended compound consisting of quarks at the same time. An imaginable relation between strong and Coulomb forces is discussed too, and derived from a model of action quanta.

7. The point under (c) of (6) is discussed in 15., 16. and 17. An essence of it is that the wave and the corpuscular manifestation states of a particle carry the integrated data - the information - defining such particle in two, mutually isomorphically organized, "economical" information codes, respectively. Besides the appearance of action metric this causes particles to be in a position of manifesting themselves one time as corpuscules, and another time as waves. Hence there is no corpuscule somewhere hidden in the waves.
      As already indicated above, it is particularly points (a), (b) and (c) of (6) that cause actually realistic
microphysical processes to be observed by us as highly formalistic, probabilistic, and often incoherent phenomena, elusive of understandable models.

8. In 21. and 18. we consider one period of the Zitterbewegung as the realistic model of an action quantum going with a massive Dirac particle in the corpuscular state. For the rest, the wavelike variant of action quanta is discussed there too, and also in 13., 14. and some of the other papers given above. The Zitterbewegung appears to provide a mechanism for retroactivity in the corpuscular state too. [The one we had in view under (2) and in 13. especially refers to systems in the wave state.]
      Nonlocality in space and time (such as retroactivity), as indicated above, has two more radical consequences:
(a) It allows a reconciliation of Bohr's position on the "unpredictable influence" of observational acts with Einstein's conviction that "God does not play dice"; see especially 18.;
(b) It amounts to a radically simplifying factor in microphysics. For nonlocality such as implied by action metric removes from nature the "obligation" of having to store all information needed at some point-event A
- needed in order to allow natural law to act properly at A - locally at A itself. See 21. and 26.

9. In coherence with determinism and four-dimensional realistic definiteness, Heisenberg's uncertainty margins and the associated "measurement disturbance" appear to be explainable quantitatively by the quantal-lattice model of microprocesses (see 20. above, section 8). They appear to be directly related to the "constraint" that action quanta cannot but link up with each other at their "starting" or "end" points - on account of their indivisibility - and do not imply nature to be truly uncertain. Within this scope, Einstein's "hidden variable" appears as the (nonlocal) influence of a process as a whole on some particular local measurement-event.
      We put as a hypothesis that the relevant deterministic definition of a four-dimensional process as a whole comes about via an - "extended" - Least action principle - now referring to such whole process -, similarly to how the simpler paths covered by objects in space-time are defined by "classical" Least action
(see also 26.). This hypothesis may contribute to the explanation of the origin and construction of compound microparticles and microprocesses in general.

10. Generally, there is every appearance that most physicists too easily acquiesced in the idea that understandable models and the Aha-Erlebnis in microphysics are beyond human reach, or even fundamentally impossible. On the other hand, we are convinced that the "paradoxes" appearing if we try to construct such models are mere implications of our erroneously not abandoning some preconceptions about how nature works. Compare how in the past the "paradox" of the non-dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of the observer was simply a consequence of our having prejudices about the relation of space and time, which were corrected by Einstein.
      In current thinking about nature, prejudices still may even be more radical than those refuted by Einstein. Primarily, they refer to determinism and realistic four-dimensionality as well as concomitant new (action) metric, retroactivity and nonlocal influences in general, which are connected with man's view on life at all. As is clear from the foregoing, various papers listed above show such prejudices to violate experiment in coherence with rational argument.
      Finally, we draw attention to some papers that are indirectly related to our main thinking - aimed at understandable models - as summarized above:
(a) A theory on Coulomb interaction in which the idea of nature 's "borrowing energy from God" is superfluous: the virtual photons transmitting the force quantitatively precisely embody both such force and its potential energy
, viz. by their momentum and energy, respectively. This produces an imaginable model that is also relevant to some other interactions (see 10.);
(b) In 12. we give a simpler proof of Bell's theorem; also, we discuss a varied EPR thought experiment demonstrating, inter alia
, that retroactivity only appears within the "traditional" margins of uncertainty "left free" by quantum mechanics. It is one among - indeed nonlocal - hidden variables. Also, 12. contributes to translating quantum formalism into understandable models using - imaginable - nonlocality and action quantities and concepts.

See also: Books and Papers on Socio-Cultural Subjects by C.W. Rietdijk, D.Sci. [most titles are in Dutch]

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